Standard Assessment Tests - these national tests are carried out in schools and check children's educational progress at the ends of Key Stages 1, 2 and 3. There are a range of levels which the majority of children are expected to work within, and to attain:
- KS1 Work within levels 1-3 End of KS1 (7 years) Attain level 2
- KS2 Work within levels 2-5 End of KS2 (11 years) Attain level 4
- KS3 Work within levels 3-7 End of KS3 (14 years) Attain level 5/6
School Action - when a class or subject teacher identify that a pupil has special educational needs they provide interventions that are additional to or different from those provided as part of the school's usual differentiated curriculum offer and strategies. An IEP will usually be devised.
School Action Plus
School Action Plus - when the class or subject teacher and the SENCO are provided with advice or support from outside specialists, so that alternative interventions additional or different strategies to those provided for the pupil through School Actioncan be put in place. The SENCO usually takes the lead although day-to-day provision continues to be the responsibility of class or subject teacher. A new IEP will usually be devised.
Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire - this is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire about 3-16 year olds. It exists in several versions to meet the needs of researchers, clinicians and educationalists. Each version includes between one and three of the following components:
A) 25 items on psychological attributes.
All versions of the SDQ ask about 25 attributes, some positive and others negative. These 25 items are divided between 5 scales:
1) emotional symptoms (5 items)
added together to
2) conduct problems (5 items)
3) hyperactivity/inattention (5 items)
4) peer relationship problems (5 items)
5) prosocial behaviour (5 items)
The same 25 items are included in questionnaires for completion by the parents or teachers of 4-16 year olds (Goodman, 1997).
A slightly modified informant-rated version for the parents or nursery teachers of 3 (and 4) year olds. 22 items are identical, the item on reflectiveness is softened, and 2 items on antisocial behaviour are replaced by items on oppositionality.
Questionnaires for self-completion by adolescents ask about the same 25 traits, though the wording is slightly different (Goodman et al, 1998). This self-report version is suitable for young people aged around 11-16, depending on their level of understanding and literacy.
B) An impact supplement
Several two-sided versions of the SDQ are available with the 25 items on strengths and difficulties on the front of the page and an impact supplement on the back. These extended versions of the SDQ ask whether the respondent thinks the young person has a problem, and if so, enquire further about chronicity, distress, social impairment, and burden to others. This provides useful additional information for clinicians and researchers with an interest in psychiatric caseness and the determinants of service use (Goodman, 1999).
C) Follow-up questions
The follow-up versions of the SDQ include not only the 25 basic items and the impact question, but also two additional follow-up questions for use after an intervention. Has the intervention reduced problems? Has the intervention helped in other ways, e.g. making the problems more bearable? To increase the chance of detecting change, the follow-up versions of the SDQ ask about 'the last month', as opposed to 'the last six months or this school year', which is the reference period for the standard versions. Follow-up versions also omit the question about the chronicity of problems.
Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning - is a growing area in primary and secondary schools, the implementation of which aims to develop social and emotional well being and intelligence.
Special Educational Needs
Special Educational Needs Co-Ordinator - a member of staff of a school or early education setting who has responsibility for coordinating SEN provision within that school. In a small school the head teacher or deputy may take on this role. In larger schools there may be an SEN coordinating team.
Special Educational Needs and Disabilities
Special Educational Needs Disability Act
Special Educational Needs and Disability Tribunal - appeals may be made to the Tribunal, following procedures and timescales, for:
- LEA decision not to make a Statement of Special Educational Needs
- Disagreements about the provision made in the Statement of Special Educational Needs
- Cases of discrimination against pupils in the educational setting where the discrimination (including fixed period exclusion but not permanent) is on the grounds of disability
Cases of dispute may also be referred to the Disagreement Resolution Service prior to the Tribunal meeting.
For further information contact the SEN Additionals Needs Team or SEN Parent Partnership.
Special Educational Needs Tribunal - an independent body which has jurisdiction under section 333 of the Education Act 1996 for determining appeals by parents against Local Authority decisions on assessments and statements. The Tribunal's decision will be binding on both parties to the appeal.
Severe Learning Difficulty - pupils with severe learning difficulties have significant intellectual or cognitive impairments. This has a major effect on their ability to participate in the school curriculum without support. They may also have difficulties in mobility and co-ordination, communication and perception and the acquisition of self-help skills. Pupils with severe learning difficulties will need support in all areas of the curriculum. They may also require teaching of self-help, independence and social skills. Some pupils may use sign and symbols but most will be able to hold simple conversations. Their attainments may be within the upper P scale range (P4-P8) for much of their school careers (that is below level 1 of the National Curriculum).
Speech and Language Therapy
Speech and language therapy is a health care profession, the role and aim of which is to enable adults and children with speech, language and communication difficulties (and associated difficulties with eating and swallowing) to reach their maximum communication potential and achieve independence in all aspects of life.
Specific Learning Difficulties
SALT / SLT
Speech and Language Therapist
Sex & Relationships Education